Yarlagadda Nayudamma was born to parents Yarlagadda Subba Rao and Rangamma on 1 June 1947 in Karamchedu of Prakasam District (then part of Guntur district) , A.P. He graduated in Medicine in 1970 from Guntur Medical College, acquired the degree of Master of Surgery in General Surgery in 1974 from Rohtak Medical College, specialized in Paediatric Surgery and obtained the degree of M.Ch. in 1977 from All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (AIIMS). He held various offices including Vice Principal of Guntur Medical College, Guntur.
Yarlagadda Nayudamma is a consultant paediatric surgeon based out of Guntur. Previously, he operated at the Guntur General Hospital where he was the head of the paediatric surgery department. He has performed various complex surgical procedures which have received acclamation from the scientific community and the lay public.He is the only Indian surgeon to have successfully separated three sets of Conjoined Twins fused at three different locations - head, thorax-abdomen and pelvis. All 6 children are leading normal healthy lives. He is also the first Indian surgeon to have successfully operated on a rare congenital anomaly of duplication of stomodeum (double mouth) in December, 1995.